The Ghana Army as it is today grew from military units organized in the 19th century by European Trading Companies to safeguard their socio-economic interest in the Gold Coast. Prior to independence, the role of the Army, then Royal West African Frontier force (RWAFF) was to maintain internal security (IS), protect the British interest in the Gold Coast and also take part in regional and international operations in support of the colonial government’s objectives.
On attainment of independence, the Army was transformed into a wholly Ghanaian institution, expanded and made to serve the interest of the Ghanaian government. The purpose of the Army at independence was to protect and advance national sovereignty and this has remained unchanged.
Structure Ghana Army
The Ghana Army is the army of the West African nation of Ghana. In 1959, two years after the Gold Coast obtained independence as Ghana, the Gold Coast Regiment was withdrawn from the Royal West African Frontier Force, and formed the basis for the new Ghanaian Army. Together with the Ghana Navy and Airforce, the Army makes up the Ghana Armed Forces, controlled by The Ministry of Defence and Central Defence Headquarters, both located in Greater Accra. The Ghana army is divided into 3 commands:
Southern Command (Accra)
1 infantry battalion ,2 infantry battalion, 5 infantry battalion ,1 rapid reaction battalion ,1 armoured reconnaissance regiment ,1 artillery regiment ,1 engineer regiment, 1 field workshop
Central Command (Kumasi)
3 light infantry battalion, 4 light infantry battalion, 1 reconnaissance regiment, 1 signal squadron, 1 field workshop, 1 field ambulance, 1 Transport Company
The Command currently consists of 2 major units – 3 Inf Bn at Liberation Barracks, Sunyani and the 4 Inf Bn in Complex and Uaddara Barracks in Kumasi. There is also 2 Armoured Recce Squadron stationed in Sunyani. The support arms and services are 2 Sig Sqn, 2 MT Coy, 2 Field Workshop, 2 Field Ambulance and 2 FOC. These are all located in Kumasi.
Northern Command (Tamale)
- 1 airborne battalion
- 6 light infantry battalions
The Command currently consists of 2 major units – 6 Inf Bn in Kamina Barracks in Tamale and the Airborne Force (ABF) in Barwah Barracks also in Tamale.
The Ghanaian Army consists of three distinct infantry elements:
Ghana Regiment- The major element of the army is the six light infantry battalions of the Ghana Regiment. Three battalions are assigned to each brigade.
Airborne Force – The Airborne Force (ABF) is a battalion sized formation including a parachutetrained company assigned to the Northern Command.
64 Infantry Regiment – 64 Infantry Regiment is the commando trained rapid reaction force assigned to the Southern Command.
- The army has a number of units designated as combat support, including its armour, artillery, engineers and signals:
- Reconnaissance Regiment (Sunyani)
- Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment
- 48 Engineer Regiment (Teshie, Accra region)
- 66 Artillery Regiment (Volta Barracks, Ho; formed 2003 from previous Medium Mortar Regiment)
- Signals Regiment (Kumasi)
- Logistics Group
It is similar to the British army ranks structure. They are arranged in descending order:
- Second Lieutenant
- Warrant Officer Class 1
- Warrant Officer Class 2
- Sergeant Major
- Staff Sergeant